When nystagmus accompanies dizziness – pro

Dizziness accounts for an estimated 5 percent of primary care clinic visits. The physician who encounters this complaint should investgate only after classifying it  into one of four categories: vertigo, disequilibrium, presyncope, or lightheadedness. Each one has a distinct differential diagnosis.  The differential diagnosis of dizziness can be narrowed with easy-to-perform physical examination tests, including evaluation for nystagmus, the Dix-Hallpike

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The Role of Physical Therapy in Musculor Dystrophies

Muscular dystrophy (MD)is a group of genetic diseases that affect muscle function. There are more than 30 genetic mutations that can cause muscular dystrophy.  Based on the clinical features, including inheritance pattern, muscles affected, and muscle biopsy features,  dystriophis are dvivided into: Duchenne, Becker, Myotonic dystrophy, Facioscapulohumeral, Limb-girdle, Ocullopharyngeal, Congenital and Distal. Physical therapy, especially regular

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MRI in the Diagnosis and Followup of Multiple Sclerosis

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain is useful in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), because it is an inflammatory, demyelinating condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that MRI can visualize. Therefore, the activity of the disease can be quantified and tracked over time, with treatment. White matter tracts are affected, including those of the upper brain, lower brain, and spinal cord. MS lesions, known as plaques,

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Neuropsychological Testing in Multiple Sclerosis: Importance of Brevity

Data shows a strong relationship of neuropsychological testing with neuropsychiatric features of the disease, brain imaging and vocational outcomes. Unfortunately, full neuropsychological testing is time consuming and expensive, which limits its usefulness as an ongoing assessment tool. One cannot easily frequently repeat testing that takes many hours to several days. The current tendency is to seek instruments for evaluation which combine diagnostic

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Transverse Myelitis

Transverse myelitis is an inflammatory condition of the spinal cord, which affects thel covering of the nerve cell fibers (myelin). Transverse myelitis causes diminished or absent sensation below the level of the injury injury. The disrupted transmission of nerve signals due to transverse myelitis can cause pain or other sensory problems, weakness or paralysis of muscles, or bladder and bowel dysfunction. Transverse meylitis has been associated

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