Lay Summary: DLI is well studied in chronic myelogenous leukemia but less so in other hematological conditions.
DLI induces complete remissions in the majority of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in early-stage relapse and in less than 30% of patients with relapsed acute leukemia, myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma. DLI-induced remissions of chronic phase CML are durable, but as many as half of patients with other diseases ultimately relapse. Complications of DLI include acute and chronic graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and aplasia, which induce profound immunosuppression and susceptibility to opportunistic infections. There is a strong correlation of GVHD and disease response.
Other hematologic malignancies do not respond to DLI as well as early-stage CM. In general, less than 30% of patients with relapsed acute leukemia,myelodysplasia, and multiple myeloma achieve complete responses to DLI. As many close to half or more of patients who do achieve a complete response may be expected to relapse after DLI. DLI has been researched as a treatment for a variety of hematologic malignancies, including most prominently chronic myeloid leukemia, but also acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Studies are limited due to small numbers but they have provided evidence that DLI can establish a graft-versus-leukemia/lymphoma effect.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) also appears to be responsive to allogeneic donor T cells.However, clinical expereince is limited. Some patient have obtained a remission following DLI as treatment of persistent disease following alloBMT. Other CLL patients have obtained complete remissions, including molecular complete remissions, following discontinuation of posttransplant immunosuppression. Unfortunately, supporting evidence is limited because treatment with CLL with allogeneic transplantation is fairly rare.
Tomblyn, M., & Lazarus, H. M. (2008). Donor lymphocyte infusions: The long and winding road: How should it be traveled? Bone Marrow Transplantation, 42 (9), 569-579.
Deol, A., & Lum, L. G. (2010). Role of donor lymphocyte infusions in relapsed hematological malignancies after stem cell transplantation revisited. Cancer Treatment Reviews, 36 (7), 528-538.