Histiocytosis is a rare disease that involves hystiocytes. The disease can range from limited involvement that spontaneously regresses to progressive multiorgan involvement that can be chronic and debilitating. In some cases, the disease can be life-threatening.It is approximated that histiocytosis affects 1 in 200,000 children born each year in the United States. The disease us rare and not much is known securely about how to treat it. Because of its rarity, prospective studies are not possible.
Chest xray is ususally done. CAT may be appropriate in initial work-up of lung invovement. High-resolution CT scanning may be required if lung involvement is suspected based on radiography findings of pulmonary infiltrates or a cystic appearance. Skeletal survey may show osteolytic lesions. CT scanning or MRI of the hypothalamic-pituitary region may reveal abnormalities of these organs. In particular, magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be valuable in the early detection and evaluation of the neurodegenerative component.
There is no evidence that routine CT surveillance is of benefit.