Standard therapy after bladder cancer was removed and is found to not be muscle invasive cancer can reduce the risk of recurrence. Patients at high risk for cancer recurrence receive bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy instilled into the bladder after surgery. One study that compared mitomycin with interferon alfa-2b showed an improved outcome with mitomycin, although interferon was better tolerated. Intravesical interferon therapy with BCGT or by itself can significantly lower the recurrence rate in superficial bladder cancer. In vitro evidence suggested that IFN combined with BCG may have a synergistic effect on the immune response, and treatment regimens with IFN have used reduced BCG dosage in an attempt to reduce toxicity.
Evidence supporting interferon is limited. NCCN recommends mitomycin or BCG.
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