Etoposide as a single agent is active in relapsed and refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with complete response (CR) rates of 10% to 25%. The drug has been safely combined with cytarabine, azacytidine, vinca alkaloids, and anthracyclines, inducing remission rates of 20% to 60% in patients with previously treated AML. Combinations with mitoxantrone have been explored since 1986. Mitoxantrone is an intravenous anthracenedione structurally related to the anthracycline antibiotics. This drug has been used for several years in the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Various treatment schedules, using mitoxantrone alone and in combination with other anti-leukemic agents, have been used in clinical trials. Complete remission (CR) rates ranged from 14 to 44% in refractory AML and from 46 to 79% in relapsed patients.
The etoposide and mitoxantrone regimen is well supported although the field has moved on to newer agents and there are no recent studies of just these two drugs in combination. NOVANTRONE in combination with other approved drug(s) is indicated in the initial therapy of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) in adults. This category includes myelogenous, promyelocytic, monocytic, and erythroid acute leukemias.
Estey EH. Therapeutic options for acute myelogenous leukemia.Cancer. 2001 Sep 1;92(5):1059-73.
Ho, AD, Lipp, T, Ehninger, G, Illiger, HJ, Meyer, P, Freund, M, Hunstein, W
Combination of mitoxantrone and etoposide in refractory acute myelogenous leukemia–an active and well-tolerated regimen J Clin Oncol 1988 6: 213-217
Bishop JF, Lowenthal RM, Joshua D, et al. Etoposide in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Blood 1990;75:27-32.