Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and hydrogen 1 MR spectroscopy of the prostate gland are performed during the same examination with a conventional clinical MR unit. Prostate zonal anatomy and prostate cancer are best depicted on multiplanar T2-weighted MR images. MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy are not used as an initial diagnostic tool. Their use in tumor detection is reserved for patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels in whom previous biopsy results were negative. The use of MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy for the evaluation of tumor location, local extent (extracapsular extension and/or seminal vesicle invasion), volume, and aggressiveness is generating strong clinical interest. In staging and treatment planning, MR imaging has been shown to have an incremental value additive to the value of clinical nomograms. Furthermore, anatomic and metabolic mapping of the prostate gland with 1H MR spectroscopy offers the possibility of optimizing treatment planning (watchful waiting, surgery, or radiation therapy [intensity-modulated radiation therapy or brachytherapy]), thus further expanding the role of MR imaging in the achievement of patient-specific, individualized treatment.
A.Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino
Imaging Prostate Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Perspective
Radiology, April 1, 2007; 243(1): 28 – 53.
nccn.Org, prostate cancer
Filip G. Claus, MD, PhD, Hedvig Hricak, MD, PhD and Robert R. Hattery, MD
Pretreatment Evaluation of Prostate Cancer: Role of MR Imaging and 1H MR Spectroscopy RadioGraphics 2004;24:S167-S180