PET scanning is a new modality and many questions as to appropriateness and clinical benefit remain. This is especially so in complex anatomic location like biliary and gallbladder carcinoma. It is not at all certain that using PET in gallbladder cancer results in clinically beneficial decisions and false positive and false negative rates have not been adequately studied.ESMo (2016) aSYS: “ The utility of positron emission tomography (PET)-CT is controversial “.SEOM guideline says: “PET-CT may be considered to rule out metastatic disease in patients without metastatic spread on MDCT, but remains investigational  (Level of Evidence IIIb, Grade of Recommendation C)”.
Toshimori Koh et al, Differential diagnosis of gallbladder cancer using positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG-PET)
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Kato T, Tsukamoto E, Shiga T, et al. Preliminary results of whole body FDG-PET in biliary carcinoma . J Nucl Med 2000;41:298P.
J. W. Valle, I. Borbath, S. A. Khan, F. Huguet, T. Gruenberger and D. Arnold. Biliary Cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines
Ann Oncol (2016) 27 (suppl 5): v28-v37
Benavides M, Antón A, Gallego J, et al. Biliary tract cancers: SEOM clinical guidelines. Clin Transl Oncol. 2015;17(12):982-7.
Shaikh F, Awan O, Khan SA. 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging of Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma – A Pictorial Review. Cureus. 2015;7(8):e298. Published 2015 Aug 9. doi:10.7759/cureus.298