The ability to escalate therapy and then salvage with stem cells from a donor has been a boon for patients with many types of cancer and hematologic malignancies. These outside donor cells, if properly managed, can provide an anticancer or anti- leukemia effect without provoking a full-scale debilitating graft versus host reaction. However taking into account toxicity and complications of high-dose chemotherapy and development of graft versus host disease, as well as infectious complications, unrelated donor transplantation can be deadly for the elderly. The recent controversy about heart transplantation for the 71-year-old Dick Cheney this issue (as well as the ethical quandaries of allocating organs) to public attention. Elderly patients, with chronic medical problems lower reserves to tolerate or surmount toxicity.
The maximum age for allogenic transplantation has been increasing as methods of transplantation have advanced. Most centers are now considering unrelated donor transplantation for patients at around seventy year mark. Unfortunately this remains an ongoing source of controversy because the literature is contradictory and confusing, owing primarily to the lack of phase 3 studies, which, however, would be very difficult to do. This remains a matter for discussion between patient and physician and an individualized decision between them.
K van Besien Unrelated donor transplantation over the age of 55. Are we merely getting (b)older? Leukemia (2005) 19, 31–33.